Details

Constructed Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment


Constructed Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment


Challenges in Water Management Series 1. Aufl.

von: Alexandros I. Stefanakis

121,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 26.06.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119268321
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 608

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

A groundbreaking book on the application of the economic and environmentally effective treatment of industrial wastewater  Constructed Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment contains a review of the state-of-the-art applications of constructed wetland technology for industrial wastewater treatment. This green technology offers many economic, environmental, and societal advantages. The text examines the many unique uses and the effectiveness of constructed wetlands for the treatment of complex and heavily polluted wastewater from various industrial sources. The editor — a noted expert in the field — and the international author team (93 authors from 22 countries) present vivid examples of the current state of constructed wetlands in the industrial sector. The text is filled with international case studies and research outcomes and covers a wide range of applications of these sustainable systems including facilities such as the oil and gas industry, agro-industries, paper mills, pharmaceutical industry, textile industry, winery, brewery, sludge treatment and much more. The book reviews the many system setups, examines the different removal and/or transformational processes of the various pollutants and explores the overall effectiveness of this burgeoning technology. This important resource: Offers the first, groundbreaking text on constructed wetlands use for industrial wastewater treatment Provides a single reference with summarized information and the state-of-the-art knowledge of the use of Constructed Wetlands in the industrial sector through case studies, research outcomes and review chapters Covers a range of industrial applications such as hydrocarbons/oil and gas industry, food and beverage, wood and leather processing, agro-industries, pharmaceuticals and many others Includes best practices drawn by a collection of international case studies Presents the latest technological developments in the industry Written for civil and environmental engineers, sustainable wastewater/water managers in industry and government, Constructed Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment is the first book to offer a comprehensive review of the set-up and effectiveness of constructed wetlands for a wide range of industrial applications to highlight the diverse economic and environmental benefits this technology brings to the industry.
 List of Contributors xvii Preface xxv Acknowledgements xxvii Introduction to Constructed Wetland Technology 1Alexandros I. Stefanakis 1 From Natural to Constructed Wetlands 1 2 The Need for Sustainable Solutions 3 3 Constructed Wetlands or Conventional Systems – Pros and Cons 3 4 Classification of Constructed Wetlands 6 4.1 Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands (FWS CWs) 7 4.2 Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands  (HSF CWs) 7 4.3 Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands  (VFCWs) 8 4.4 Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTWs) 9 4.5 Sludge Treatment Wetlands (STWs) 10 4.6 Aerated Constructed Wetlands  11 5 Design Considerations of Constructed Wetlands  11 6 Constructed Wetlands  as a Sustainable Solution for the Industrial Sector 14 7 Scope of this Book 16 References 17 Part I Petrochemical and Chemical Industry 23 1 Integrated Produced Water Management in a Desert Oilfield Using Wetland Technology and Innovative Reuse Practices 25Alexandros I. Stefanakis, Stephane Prigent and Roman Breuer 1.1 Introduction 25 1.2 Constructed Wetland for Produced Water Treatment 27 1.2.1 Location and Description 27 1.2.2 Weather Station 28 1.2.3 Chemical Analyses 30 1.3 Results and Discussion 32 1.3.1 Weather Data 32 1.3.2 Water Quality 32 1.3.3 Environmental Performance 35 1.4 Treated Effluent Reuse for Saline Irrigation 36 1.5 Conclusions 39 References 39 2 Constructed Wetlands  Treating Water Contaminated with Organic Hydrocarbons 43Martin Thullner, Alexandros I. Stefanakis and Saeed Dehestani 2.1 Introduction 43 2.1.1 Benzene Removal in Constructed Wetlands  44 2.2 MTBE Removal in Constructed Wetlands  48 2.3 Phenol Removal in Constructed Wetlands  51 2.4 Combined Treatment of Different Compounds 54 References 56 Part II Food and Beverage Industry 65 3 Aerated Constructed Wetlands  for Treatment of Municipal and Food Industry Wastewater 67A. Pascual, D. De la Varga, M. Soto, D. Van Oirschot, R.M. Kilian, J.A. Álvarez, P. Carvalho and C.A. Arias 3.1 Introduction 67 3.2 Aerated Constructed Wetlands  68 3.2.1 Oxygen Transfer at theWater–Biofilm Interface 69 3.2.2 Benefits of Artificial Aeration in Constructed Wetlands  70 3.2.3 Dissolved Oxygen Profile along CWs 71 3.2.4 TSS Removal 71 3.2.5 COD Removal 71 3.2.6 Nitrogen Removal 72 3.3 HIGHWET Project 72 3.3.1 KT Food Pilot Plant 73 3.3.2 Research Operational Plan of KT Food Treatment Plant 73 3.3.2.1 Campaign 1 77 3.3.2.2 Campaign 2 78 3.3.2.3 Campaign 3 80 3.3.2.4 Campaign 4 82 3.3.2.5 Campaign 5 84 3.3.3 Comparison of Results 85 3.4 Conclusions 87 Acknowledgements 88 References 88 4 Treatment of Wineries and Breweries Effluents using Constructed Wetlands  95F. Masi, A. Rizzo, and R. Bresciani 4.1 Introduction 95 4.2 Wastewater Production and Characterization 96 4.2.1 Wineries 96 4.2.2 Breweries 96 4.3 Applications and Configurations 97 4.3.1 Wineries 97 4.3.1.1 Multistage CW with Nature-Based Composting as Pretreatment for Wastewater: An Italian Case Study 98 4.3.1.2 Multistage CW with Technological Composting as Pretreatment for Wastewater: A Spanish Case Study 99 4.3.1.3 Multistage CW with Technological Aerobic Reactor and Subsequent Composting on CW: A French Case Study 100 4.3.2 Breweries 101 4.4 Discussion and Conclusions 101 4.4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Multistage CW Treatment Plants 101 4.4.2 Future Perspectives of CW for Brewery Waste water Treatment 103 References 103 5 Treatment of Effluents from Fish and Shrimp Aquacultures in Constructed Wetlands 105Yaln Tepe and Fulya Aydin Temel 5.1 Introduction 105 5.1.1 Concerns in Aquaculture 105 5.2 Overview of Aquaculture and Effluent Treatment 107 5.2.1 Effluent Water Quality Considerations 108 5.3 Use of Constructed Wetlands  for Treatment of Fish and Shrimp Culture Effluents 112 5.3.1 Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands  (FWS CWs) 113 5.3.2 Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands  (SFCWs) 114 5.3.3 Hybrid Systems (HS) 115 5.4 Conclusions 119 References 120 6 Evaluation of Treatment Wetlands of Different Configuration for the Sugarcane-Mill Effluent under Tropical Conditions 127E. Navarro, R. Pastor, V. Matamoros and J.M. Bayona 6.1 Introduction 127 6.2 Modeling Water Consumption Minimization 130 6.2.1 First Approach to Linearity 131 6.2.2 A MILP Approach to the Problem 131 6.3 Type of Effluent and Pretreatment 133 6.3.1 Physical–Chemical Methods 133 6.3.2 Intensive Biological Processes 133 6.3.2.1 Suspended Bed Reactor 133 6.3.2.2 Fixed Bed Reactor 133 6.3.2.3 Fluidized Bed Reactor 134 6.3.3 Extensive Biological Processes 134 6.4 Constructed Wetlands  (CWs) 135 6.4.1 Case Studies 135 6.4.1.1 India 135 6.4.1.2 Kenya 137 6.4.1.3 Mexico 137 6.4.1.4 South Africa 138 6.4.1.5 Thailand 138 6.4.2 Effects of Design and Operation on the COD, BOD and Nutrient Removal 139 6.4.3 Other Water Quality Parameters 140 6.4.3.1 Turbidity 140 6.4.3.2 Pigments 140 6.4.3.3 Sulfate 140 6.4.3.4 Nitrogen Removal 141 6.4.3.5 Phosphorus 141 6.5 Research Needs 141 Acknowledgements 141 References 142 7 Treatment of Effluents from Meat, Vegetable and Soft Drinks Processing using Constructed Wetlands  145Marco Hartl, Joseph Hogan and Vassia Ioannidou 7.1 Treatment of Slaughterhouse and Meat Processing Wastewater 145 7.2 Treatment of Potato Washing Wastewater 150 7.3 Treatment of Molasses Wastewater 153 7.4 Treatment of Effluents from Coffee Processing 157 References 160 Part III Agro-Industrial Wastewater 163 8 Olive Mill Wastewater Treatment in Constructed Wetlands  165F. Masi, A. Rizzo, R. Bresciani, D. Vayenas, C. Akratos, A. Tekerlekopoulou and A.I. Stefanakis 8.1 Introduction 165 8.2 Wastewater Production and Characterization 166 8.3 Applications and Configurations 166 8.3.1 The Greek Experiences 168 8.3.1.1 FreeWater Surface CWs 168 8.3.1.2 Horizontal Subsurface Flow CWs 170 8.3.1.3 Vertical Flow CWs 170 8.3.1.4 HybridWetland Systems 171 8.4 Evaporation Plus Constructed Wetlands : An Italian Innovative Approach 172 8.5 Discussion and Conclusions 172 References 173 9 Dairy Wastewater Treatment with Constructed Wetlands : Experiences from Belgium, the Netherlands and Greece 175Christos S. Akratos, Dion van Oirschot, Athanasia G. Tekerlekopoulou, Dimitrios V. Vayenas and Alexandros Stefanakis 9.1 Introduction 175 9.2 Brief Literature Review onWetland Systems for DairyWastewater Treatment 176 9.3 Experiences from the Netherlands and Belgium 181 9.3.1 Wetland System Description 182 9.3.2 Operation 183 9.3.3 Results from the Netherlands 184 9.3.3.1 Experimental Projects 184 9.3.3.2 Stimulation of Denitrification through Recirculation of Effluent 185 9.3.3.3 Phosphorus Removal 185 9.3.4 Results from Belgium 187 9.3.4.1 System at Poppe, Eeklo 187 9.3.4.2 System at De Paep, Sint-GillisWaas in Belgium 188 9.3.4.3 System at PDLT, Geel in Belgium 189 9.3.4.4 AeratedWetland (FBA) at PDLT, Geel in Belgium 190 9.4 Experiences from Greece 192 9.4.1 First Experimental Project 192 9.4.2 Second Experimental Project 196 9.5 Conclusions 197 References 198 10 The Performance of Constructed Wetlands  for Treating Swine Wastewater under Different Operating Conditions 203Gladys Vidal, Catalina Plaza de Los Reyes and Oliver Sáez 10.1 Introduction 203 10.1.1 The Swine Sector and the Generation of Slurries 203 10.1.2 Characterization of Slurries 203 10.1.3 Environmental Effects of the Application of Slurry in Soils 205 10.1.4 Integrated Management for Treating Swine Slurry 205 10.1.5 Primary Treatment (Solids Removal) 207 10.1.6 Secondary Treatment (Organic Matter Removal) 207 10.1.6.1 Anaerobic Treatment Systems 207 10.2 Removal of Nutrients by Constructed Wetlands  207 10.2.1 ConstructedWetland (CW) 208 10.2.1.1 Macrophyte Species Used in Constructed Wetlands  209 10.2.1.2 Nitrogen Elimination Mechanisms in Constructed Wetlands  209 10.2.1.3 Incorporation into Plant Tissue (Assimilation) 212 10.2.1.4 Ammonium Sedimentation/Adsorption 212 10.2.1.5 Anammox (or Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation) 213 10.3 Removal of Nutrients by Constructed Wetlands  using Biological Pretreatments 213 Acknowledgements 216 References 216 Part IV Mine Drainage and Leachate Treatment 223 11 Constructed Wetlands  for Metals: Removal Mechanism and Analytical Challenges 225Adam Sochacki, Asheesh K. Yadav, Pratiksha Srivastava, Naresh Kumar, MarkWilliam Fitch and Ashirbad Mohanty 11.1 Sources of Metal Pollution and Rationale for Using Constructed Wetlands  to Treat Metal-Laden Wastewater 225 11.2 Removal Mechanisms 226 11.2.1 Adsorption 226 11.2.2 Filtration and Sedimentation 226 11.2.3 Association with Metal Oxides and Hydroxides 227 11.2.4 Precipitation as Sulfides 227 11.2.4.1 Mechanism of the Process 228 11.2.4.2 Bacterial Sulfate Reduction in Constructed Wetlands  230 11.2.4.3 Carbon Source for Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria 231 11.2.5 Microbial Removal Processes 232 11.2.6 Plant Uptake of Metals in Constructed Wetlands  232 11.2.6.1 Metal Uptake by Aquatic Macrophytes 232 11.2.6.2 Metal Uptake by the Roots 233 11.2.6.3 Metal Uptake by the Shoots 233 11.2.6.4 Indirect Assistance in Metal Removal by Plants 233 11.2.6.5 Role of Plants in Removing Metals from Industrial Wastewater 234 11.2.7 Other Processes 235 11.3 Analytical Challenges 235 11.3.1 Background and Overview of Methods 235 11.3.2 Sequential Extraction Procedures and their Applicability to Wetland Substrates 237 11.3.3 State-of-the-Art Instrumental Methods 238 11.3.4 Advanced Analytical Techniques 239 References 241 12 A Review on the Use of Constructed Wetlands  for the Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage 249C. Sheridan, A. Akcil, U. Kappelmeyer and I. Moodley 12.1 What is Acid Mine Drainage? 249 12.2 Sources of AMD 250 12.3 Environmental and Social Impacts of AMD 251 12.3.1 Environmental Impacts 251 12.3.2 Social Impacts of AMD 253 12.4 Remediation of AMD 253 12.4.1 Constructed Wetlands  254 12.4.1.1 ConstructedWetland Configuration Types 254 12.4.1.2 Mechanism by which CWs Remediate Most AMD/ARD 254 12.4.1.3 Constructed Wetlands  for Treating AMD Prior to 2000 255 12.4.1.4 Constructed Wetlands  for Treating AMD Between 2001 and 2010 256 12.4.1.5 Constructed Wetlands  for Treating AMD from 2010 to the Present 258 12.5 Summary 259 References 259 13 Solid Waste (SW) Leachate Treatment using Constructed Wetland Systems 263K.B.S.N. Jinadasa, T.A.O.K. Meetiyagoda andWun Jern Ng 13.1 The Nature of SolidWaste (SW) and SWLeachate 263 13.2 Characteristics of SWLeachate in Tropical Developing Countries 265 13.3 TreatmentMethods for SWLeachate 267 13.3.1 Advantages of Constructed Wetlands  for Leachate Treatment Under Tropical Climate 269 13.4 ExperimentalMethodology for Plant Species and CWPerformance Evaluation 270 13.5 Effect of Plant Species on Leachate Components 273 13.5.1 Effect on Organic Compounds 273 13.5.2 Effect on Removal and Transformation of Nitrogen Compounds 276 13.6 Summary 279 References 279 Part V Wood and Leather Processing 283 14 Cork Boiling Wastewater Treatment in Pilot Constructed Wetlands  285Arlindo C. Gomes, Alexandros Stefanakis, António Albuquerque and Rogério Simões 14.1 Introduction 285 14.1.1 Cork Production and Manufacture 285 14.1.2 Cork Boiling Wastewater Characteristics 286 14.2 Cork Boiling Wastewater Treatment 289 14.2.1 Physico-Chemical Treatment 289 14.2.2 Biological Treatment 298 14.2.3 Sequential Treatment 299 14.3 Constructed Wetland Technology 300 14.3.1 Experimental Setup of Microcosm-Scale Constructed Wetlands 301 14.3.2 Experimental Results 302 14.4 Conclusions 304 Acknowledgements 305 References 305 15 Constructed Wetland Technology for Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater Treatment 309Satish Kumar and Ashutosh Kumar Choudhary 15.1 Introduction 309 15.2 Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater Characteristics 310 15.3 Remediation of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater Pollution 311 15.4 Constructed Wetlands  312 15.4.1 Performance of CWs for Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater Treatment 312 15.5 Conclusions 322 References 322 16 Treatment of Wastewater from Tanneries and the Textile Industry using Constructed Wetland Systems 327Christos S. Akratos, Athanasia G. Tekerlekopoulou and Dimitrios V. Vayenas 16.1 Introduction 327 16.1.1 Tannery Wastewaters 327 16.1.2 Azo Dye and Textile Industries 330 16.2 Discussion 332 16.3 Constructed Wetlands  for Cr(VI) Removal: A Case Study 332 16.4 Conclusions 337 References 338 Part IV Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics Industry 343 17 Removal Processes of Pharmaceuticals in Constructed Wetlands  345A. Dordio and A.J.P. Carvalho 17.1 Introduction 345 17.2 Pharmaceutical Compounds in the Environment: Sources, Fate and Environmental Effects 348 17.3 Pharmaceuticals Removal in Constructed Wetlands  352 17.3.1 Removal Efficiency of Pharmaceuticals in CWS 352 17.3.2 Main Removal Processes for Pharmaceuticals in SSF-CWS 365 17.3.2.1 Abiotic Processes 365 17.3.2.2 Biotic Processes 367 17.3.3 The Role of SSF-CWS Components in Pharmaceutical Removal 370 17.3.3.1 The Role of Biotic Components (Plants and Microorganisms) in Pharmaceuticals Removal 370 17.3.3.2 The Role of the Support Matrix in Pharmaceuticals Removal 381 17.4 Final Remarks 385 References 386 18 Role of Bacterial Diversity on PPCPs Removal in Constructed Wetlands  405María Hijosa-Valsero, Ricardo Sidrach-Cardona, Anna Pedescoll, Olga Sánchez and Eloy Bécares 18.1 Introduction 405 18.2 Mesocosm-Scale Experiences 406 18.2.1 Description of the Systems 406 18.2.2 Sampling Strategy 406 18.2.3 Analytical Methodology 408 18.3 Pollutant Concentrations and Removal Efficiencies in Mesocosms CWs 409 18.4 Microbiological Characterization 409 18.5 Link between Microbiological Richness and Pollutant Removal in CWs 413 18.5.1 Microbial Richness and Conventional Pollutant Removal 413 18.5.1.1 Roots 413 18.5.2 Microbial Richness and PPCP Removal 414 18.5.2.1 Gravel 414 18.5.2.2 Interstitial Liquid 414 18.5.2.3 Roots 414 18.5.3 Effect of Physico-Chemical Parameters on Microbial Richness 416 18.5.3.1 Gravel 416 18.5.3.2 Interstitial Liquid 416 18.5.3.3 Roots 416 18.6 Mechanisms and Design Parameters Involved in PPCPs Removal 418 18.7 Conclusions 420 Acknowledgements 421 References 421 Part VII Novel Industrial Applications 427 19 Dewatering of Industrial Sludge in Sludge Treatment Reed Bed Systems 429S. Nielsen and E. Bruun 19.1 Introduction 429 19.2 Methodology 431 19.2.1 Description of an STRB 431 19.2.2 Description of STRB Test-System 432 19.3 Treatment of Industrial Sludge in STRB Systems 434 19.3.1 Organic Material in Sludge 434 19.3.2 Fats and Oil in Sludge 434 19.3.3 Heavy Metals in Sludge 435 19.3.4 Nutrients in Sludge 436 19.3.5 Hazardous Organic Compounds in Sludge 436 19.4 Case Studies – Treatment of Industrial Sludge in Full-Scale and Test STRB Systems 437 19.4.1 Case 1: Treatment of Industrial Sewage Sludge with High Contents of Fat 437 19.4.2 Case 2: Treatment of Industrial Sewage Sludge with High Contents of Heavy Metal (Nickel) 438 19.4.3 Case 3: Treatment of Water Works Sludge 440 19.4.3.1 Feed Sludge and Resulting Filtrate Quality 442 19.4.3.2 Sedimentation and Capillary Suction Time 443 19.4.3.3 Sludge Volume Reduction and Sludge Residue Development 446 19.4.3.4 Filtrate Water Flow 447 19.5 Discussion and Conclusions 448 19.5.1 Industrial Sludge 448 19.5.2 Water Works Sludge 449 Acknowledgements 450 References 450 20 Constructed Wetlands  for Water Quality Improvement and Temperature Reduction at a Power-Generating Facility 453Christopher H. Keller, Susan Flash and John Hanlon 20.1 Introduction 453 20.2 Basis of Design 453 20.2.1 Design for Ammonia and Copper Reduction 454 20.2.2 Design for pH, Toxicity, and Specific Conductance 456 20.2.3 Design for Temperature Reduction 456 20.2.4 Process Flow and Final Design Criteria 458 20.3 Construction 458 20.4 Operational Performance Summary 459 20.4.1 Inflow and Outflow Rates and Wetland Water Depths 459 20.4.2 Ammonia 463 20.4.3 Copper 463 20.4.4 pH 463 20.4.5 Temperature 464 20.4.6 Whole Effluent Toxicity 466 20.4.7 Specific Conductance 466 20.5 Discussion 466 References 468 21 Recycling of Carwash Effluents Treated with Subsurface Constructed Wetlands 469A. Torrens, M. Folch, M. Salgot and M. Aulinas 21.1 Introduction 469 21.2 Case Study: Description 471 21.2.1 Pilot Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland 471 21.2.2 Pilot Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetland 471 21.2.3 Operation and Monitoring 472 21.3 Case Study: Results and Discussion 474 21.3.1 Influent Characterization 474 21.3.2 Effluent Quality for Recycling 477 21.3.3 Performance of the Constructed Wetland Pilots 478 21.3.3.1 Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetland 478 21.3.3.2 Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland 482 21.3.3.3 Comparison of Performances 486 21.4 Design and Operation Recommendations 488 21.4.1 Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetland 488 21.4.2 Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland 489 21.5 Conclusions 489 References 490 22 Constructed Wetland-Microbial Fuel Cell: An Emerging Integrated Technology for Potential Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Electricity Generation 493Asheesh Kumar Yadav, Pratiksha Srivastava, Naresh Kumar, Rouzbeh Abbassi and Barada Kanta Mishra 22.1 Introduction 493 22.2 The Fundamentals of MFC and Microbial Electron Transfer to Electrode 495 22.3 State of the Art of CW-MFCs 496 22.3.1 Design and Operation of CW-MFCs 496 22.3.2 Performance Evaluation of the Various CW-MFCs 497 22.4 Potential IndustrialWastewater Treatment in CW-MFCs 500 22.5 Challenges in Generating Bio-Electricity in CW-MFCs During IndustrialWastewater Treatment 502 22.6 Future Directions 503 Acknowledgements 504 References 504 23 Constructed Wetlands  for Storm water Treatment from Specific (Dutch) Industrial Surfaces 511Floris Boogaard, Johan Blom and Joost van den Bulk 23.1 Introduction 511 23.2 Storm water Characteristics 511 23.2.1 Storm water Quality in Urban Areas 511 23.2.2 Industrial Storm water Quality 513 23.2.3 Fraction of Pollutants Attached to Particles 513 23.2.3.1 Particle Size Distribution 515 23.2.4 Removal Efficiency 515 23.3 Best Management Practices of (Dutch)Wetlands at Industrial Sites 515 23.3.1 Amsterdam Westergasfabriekterrein 518 23.3.2 Constructed Wetland Oostzaan: Multifunctional High Removal Efficiency 518 23.3.3 Constructed Wetland Hoogeveen, Oude Diep 520 23.3.4 Cost 520 23.3.5 Choosing Best Location(s) of Wetlands on Industrial Areas 520 23.4 Innovation in Monitoring Wetlands 522 23.4.1 Innovative Determination of Long-Term Hydraulic Capacity of Wetlands 523 23.4.2 Innovating Monitoring of Removal Efficiency and Eco-Scan 524 23.5 Conclusions and Recommendations 525 23.5.1 Conclusions 525 23.5.2 Recommendations 527 References 527 Part VIII Managerial Aspects 529 24 A Novel Response of Industry to Wastewater Treatment with Constructed Wetlands: A Managerial View through System Dynamic Techniques 531Ioannis E. Nikolaou and Alexandros I. Stefanakis 24.1 Introduction 531 24.2 Theoretical Underpinning 532 24.2.1 Constructed Wetlands  – A Short Review 532 24.2.2 Constructed Wetlands : An Economic–Environmental Approach 533 24.2.3 Constructed Wetlands : An Industrial Viewpoint 534 24.2.4 CWs Through a CSR Glance 534 24.3 Methodology 536 24.3.1 Research Structure 536 24.3.2 The CSR-CWs Agenda 537 24.3.3 CSR-CWs Balanced Scorecard 537 24.3.4 CSR-CWs Balanced Scorecard System Dynamic Model 539 24.3.5 Some Certain Scenario Developments 540 24.4 Test of Scenarios and a Typology Construction for Decision Making 541 24.4.1 Scenario Analysis 541 24.4.1.1 The Proactive Industry –The Business Case Approach 541 24.4.1.2 Proactive Industry –The Ethical Case Approach 541 24.4.1.3 Reactive Industry – The Business Case Approach 543 24.4.1.4 Reactive Industry – The Ethical Case Approach 543 24.4.2 A Typology of Industry Decision Making in CSR-CWs Agenda 544 24.5 Conclusion and Discussion 545 References 546 25 A Construction Manager’s Perception of a Successful Constructed Wetland Project 551Emmanuel Aboagye-Nimo, Justus Harding and Alexandros I. Stefanakis 25.1 Key Performance Indicators for Construction Projects 551 25.2 Function and Values of Constructed Wetlands  552 25.2.1 Constructed Wetland Components 553 25.3 Clear Deliverables of Project 554 25.3.1 Health and Safety Considerations in Construction Projects 555 25.3.2 Hazard Identification and Risk Screening 556 25.3.3 Securing the Project 556 25.4 Critical Points in Constructing Wetlands 556 25.5 Summary 559 References 560 Index 563
Alexandros I. Stefanakis, Bauer Resources, Schrobenhausen, Germany; Bauer Nimr LLC, Muscat, Oman; and German University of Technology in Oman, Muscat, Oman.
A groundbreaking book on the application of the economic and environmentally effective treatment of industrial wastewater Constructed Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment contains a review of the state-of-the-art applications of constructed wetland technology for industrial wastewater treatment. This green technology offers many economic, environmental, and societal advantages. The text examines the many unique uses and the effectiveness of constructed wetlands for the treatment of complex and heavily polluted wastewater from various industrial sources. The editor—a noted expert in the field—and the international author team (93 authors from 22 countries) present vivid examples of the current state of constructed wetlands in the industrial sector. The text is filled with international case studies and research outcomes and covers a wide range of applications of these sustainable systems including facilities such as the oil and gas industry, agro-industries, paper mills, pharmaceutical industry, textile industry, winery, brewery, sludge treatment and much more. The book reviews the many system setups, examines the different removal and/or transformational processes of the various pollutants and explores the overall effectiveness of this burgeoning technology. This important resource: Offers the first, groundbreaking text on constructed wetlands use for industrial wastewater treatment Provides a single reference with summarized information and the state-of-the-art knowledge of the use of Constructed Wetlands in the industrial sector through case studies, research outcomes and review chapters Covers a range of industrial applications such as hydrocarbons/oil and gas industry, food and beverage, wood and leather processing, agro-industries, pharmaceuticals and many others Includes best practices drawn by a collection of international case studies Presents the latest technological developments in the industry Written for civil and environmental engineers, sustainable wastewater/water managers in industry and government, Constructed Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment is the first book to offer a comprehensive review of the set-up and effectiveness of constructed wetlands for a wide range of industrial applications to highlight the diverse economic and environmental benefits this technology brings to the industry.

Diese Produkte könnten Sie auch interessieren:

Biocivilización en marcha
Biocivilización en marcha
von: Sandra Campos
EPUB ebook
6,99 €
Brazilian Estuaries
Brazilian Estuaries
von: Paulo da Cunha Lana, Angelo Fraga Bernardino
PDF ebook
130,89 €
Algae Biomass: Characteristics and Applications
Algae Biomass: Characteristics and Applications
von: Katarzyna Chojnacka, Piotr Pawel Wieczorek, Grzegorz Schroeder, Izabela Michalak
PDF ebook
130,89 €